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小学英语音标发音、拼读规则汇总大全
2017-12-14

 

一、音标发音

 

“音标”是英语学习的第一步!您的孩子能正确发音吗?

 

 

二、记忆方法(只需记长音就可以)

 

1 单元音

[i:]、[i]、[ɔ:]、[ɔ]、[u:]、[u]、[ə:]、[ə]、[ɑ:]、[ʌ]、[e]、[æ]

 

2 双元音

 

[ei][ai][ɔi][iə][ɛə][uə][au][əu]

 

 

3 辅音

 

[θ]、[ð]、[ʃ]、[ʒ]

 

注:多数辅音的读音与拼音差别不大,可以通过拼音来进行谐音;还有一部分辅音没有对应的拼音字体,我们的记忆方法主要是针对这四个辅音。)

 

三、9条自然拼读规则

 

1、元音字母在重读音节中的读音

元音字母

读 音

例 词

 

a

在开音节中

[ei]

name plane Jane baby cake

 

在闭音节中

[æ]

bag dad hat map black back

e

在开音节中

[i:]

he these me Chinese

 

在闭音节中

[e]

bed let pen desk yes egg

i

在开音节中

[ai]

bike fly drive time nice kite

 

在闭音节中

[i]

fish big drink sit milk swim

o

在开音节中

[ou]

those close go hoe home no

 

在闭音节中

[ɔ]

clock not box shop sock

u

在开音节中

[ju:]

student excuse duty Tuesday

 

在闭音节中

[ʌ]

bus cup jump much lunch

在开音节中,元音字母u在辅音字母j l r s后面时读[u:]音,

  [u:]

June blue ruler 

super

2、元音字母在非重读音节中的读音

元音字母

读 音

例 词

a

[ə]

China another woman breakfast

 

[i]

orange comrade village cabbage

e

[ə]可省略

hundred student open weekend

 

[i]

chicken pocket begin children

i

[ə]/[i]

holiday beautiful family animal

 

[ai]

exercise satellite

o

[ə]

second tonight somebody welcome

 

[əu]

also zero photo

u

[ə]

autumn diffcult

 

[ju:]

popular congratulation January

动词中的a如果处在开音节位置,a读[ei]音

[ei] operate

u处在开音节位置,又在辅音字母j l r s后面时,读[u(:)]音

[u:]

July influence February 

issue

在非重读音节中,许多单词中的元音字母a e i 即可以读作[]音,也可以读作[i]音。

3、元音字母在重读音节中的特殊读音

元音字母

读 音

例 词

a在[w]音后面

[ɔ]

want what watch wash quality

a在f n sk ph sp ss st th前

[α:]

after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

i在-nd -ld和gh前

[ai]

find child light high

o在-st -ld前

[ou]

most postcard old cold

o在m n v th前

[ʌ]

come monkey love mother

4、-r音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音

元音字组

读 音

例 词

ar

ar在[w]音后面

[α:]

car farm dark sharpener

 

[ɔ:]

warm quarter towards

or

or在[w]音后面

[ɔ:]

forty morning short

 

[ə:]

word worker worse

er ir ur

[ə:]

certainly bird Thursday

辅音字母r双写时,前面的元音字母不能与r构成-r音节,而是按重读闭音节的拼读规则发音。

  carry sorry hurry

-r音节在非重读音节中通常读[r]音。

[r]

dollar 

teacher martyr 

forget 

Saturday

5、-re音节元音字组在重读音节中的读音

元音字组

读 音

例 词

are

[ε]

care dare hare

ere

[i]

here mere

ire

[ai]

fire hire wire

ore

[ɔ:]

more score before

ure

[ju]

pure cure

are ere ire ore很少出现在非重读音节中,ure在非重读音节中读[ə]音。

[ə] picture pleasure

重读元音字母加Rr,再加非重读元字组时,重读元音字母应按-re音节拼读规则拼读,字母Rr读[r]音。

 

[r] parent zero story during inspiring

某些常用词及多音节词经常出现长音短化现象。

 

 

orange very 

American 

paragraph

6、元音字组在重读音节中的读音

元音字组

读 音

例 词

ai/ay

[ei]

afraid rain wait day play

air

[ε]

air hair chair pair repair

al

al在f m前

[ɔ:l]

small ball talk wall all

 

[ɔ:l]

always also salt almost

 

[α:]

half calm

au/aw

[ɔ:]

autumn daughter draw

ea

[i:]

teach easy cheap please

 

[e]

heavy bread sweater weather

 

[ei]

break great

ear

[i]

hear dear near clear year

 

[ε]

bear pear wear swear

 

[ə:]

earth learn early

ee

[i:]

jeep week green three

eer

[i]

pioneer deer beer

ei/ey

[ei]

eight neighbour they

 

[i:]

either key

eu/ew在

j l r s后

[ju:]

new few newspaper

 

[u:]

flew brew jewelry

ie/ei[s]音之后

[i:]

piece field receive

oa

[ou]

coat Joan boat goal

oar/oor

[ɔ:]

roar board door floor

oi/oy

[i]

noise point boy toilet

oo

[u:]

broom food tooth school

 

[u]

book look cook foot good

ou/ow

[au]

flower house count down

 

[ou]

know row throw though

 

[ʌ]

young country enough

 

[u:]

group you soup

our

[ɔ:]

course your four

 

[au]

our hour ours

 

[ɜ:]

journey

ui

在j l r s后

[ju:i]

fluid suicide tuition

 

[u:]

juice fruit suit

7、非重读音节中元音字组和字群的读音

元音字组或字群

读 音

例 词

ai/ay ei/ey

[i]

Sunday foreign monkey

ow

[ou]

yellow sparrow tomorrow

元音字组在非重读音节中读[ə]音或[i]。

 

 

neighbour serious 

famous biscuit 

coffee

-sion -tion

[n]

impression nation

-sion在元音字母后

[n]

vision decision occasion

-tion在s后

[n]

question suggestion

-sten

[sn]

listen

-stle

[sl]

whistle

-sure

[ʒə]

pleasure measure

-ture

[tʃə]

picture culture

8、元字组在复合词非重读音节中的读音

复合词中的第二部分不标注重音符号,但其中的元音字母或元音字组仍按重读音节拼读规则拼读。

例如:

everyday[ei]

handbag[æ]

blackboard[ɔ:]

有些词随着语言的发展,前后两部分已失去其单独存在的意义,融合成为一个词。其中的非重读部分要按非重读音节的读音规则发音。

例如:

sun太阳 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday[i] 星期天

holy神圣 + day[ei]日子 > holiday[i] 假日

break中断 + fast[α:]斋戒 > breakfast[ə] 早餐

cup茶杯 + board木板[ɔ:] > cupboard[ə] 碗柜

9、辅字组的读音

辅字组

读 音

例 词

b

[b]

bike bus bag

 

[/]

bomb tomb

c

c在e前或在i/y前

[k]

cake picture coat music

 

[s]

face decide cinema

ch

[tʃ]

much chick rich teacher

 

[k]

school headache chemistry

 

[ʃ]

machine Chicago

-ck

[k]

cock pocket black knock

d

[d]

doctor bread hand day

-dge

[]

bridge fridge

dr-

[dr]

children driver drink

f

[f]

five four breakfast

g

g在e i/y前

[g]

bag gardon go

 

[dʒ]

orange large German

gh

[f]

cough enough

 

[/]

light daughter high

gu- -gue

gu在非重读音节中

[g]

guess league dialogue

 

[w]

language anguish

h

[h]

hot head house hand

 

[/]

hour honest

j

[dʒ]

jeep jar joke join July

k

[k]

kind bike skate make week

kn-

[n]

knife know knock

l

[l]

life milk school tall

m

[m]

monkey come autumn

-mn

[m]

autumn column solemn

n

n在[k] [g]音前

[n]

not shine ten note

 

[ŋ]

uncle thank hungry

-ng

[ŋ]

morning young wrong

p

[p]

paper plane pig ship pen

ph

[f]

elephant photo telephone

q

[k]

Iraq

qu-

[kw]

quality quite

r

[r]

red rubber ruler

s在词首或清辅音前

元音字母间或浊辅音前

[s]

sit sleep desk

 

[z]

music husband

sc-

[sk]

scarlet

 

[s]

muscle science

sh

[ʃ]

she fish shirt wash

t在通常情况下

在弱读字母ia ie io前

[t]

ten letter meet

 

[ʃ]

patient nation

tch

[tʃ]

watch

th在通常情况下

在冠词 代词 介词 连词中

在词尾-the -ther中

[θ]

thin thirty method

 

[ð]

the these with than

 

[ð]

clothe father weather

tr-

[tr]

tree train country truck

v

[v]

very voice love leave

w

[w]

week win wake sweet wait

 

[/]

answer two

wh-

wh-在字母o前

[w]

what when white why

 

[h]

who whose whole

x

在重读元音前

[ks]

box text exercise

 

[gz]

examle exist exact

wr-

[r]

write

y-

[j]

yes yard yellow young

z

[z]

puzzle zero zoo

 

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