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16种时态的主动语态和被动语态和虚拟语气
2017-12-14

Lesson 1 动词的时态

动词时态一共有四大类:现在时、过去时、将来时和过去将来时,毎大类又包括动作存在的四种状态,所以,英语中共有16种时态;一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时;一般过去时、过去进行时、过去完成时、过去完成进行时、一般将来时、将来进行时、将来完成时、将来完成进行时;一般过去将来时、过去将来进行时、过去将来完成时、过去将来完成进行时。请注意听听每种时态时怎么表达的。

1.一般现在时

He studies English every day .

I watch TV every night .

2.现在进行时

He is study English now .

I am watching TV now .

3. 现在完成时

He has studied English for two years .

I have watched that program .

4.现在完成进行时

He has been studying English for two hours .

I have been watching TV for more than two hours .

5.一般过去时

He played a computer game last night .

She cleaned the room yesterday .

6.过去进行时

He was playing a computer game when I got home .

She was cleaning the room when I went shopping .

7.过去完成时

He had played a computer game for an hour when I got home .

She had cleaned the room before I came back .

8.过去完成进行时

He had been playing a computer game for a whole afternoon when I got home .

She had been cleaning the room for two hours .

9.一般将来时

I will write my term paper tomorrow .

Tom will learn Chinese next year .

10.将来进行时

I will be writing my term paper the whole of tomorrow morning .

Tom will be learning Chinese this time next year in Beijing .

11.将来完成时

I will have written my term paper by the end of this month .

Tom will have finished his studies in Beijing by the end of next year .

12.将来完成进行时

I will have been writing my term paper for a month by the end of this week .

By the end of September , Tom will have been studying here for two years .

13.一般过去将来时

He said that he would come to visit me .

He said he would play basketball the following day .

14.过去将来进行时

He told me that he would be taking an exam at 9 o’clock the following morning .

I told him I would be preparing dinner at 4 o’clock that afternoon .

15.过去将来完成时

I thought that they would have finished their task by that time .

He promised that he would have made much progress by the end of that term .

16.过去将来完成进行时

I guessed that he would have been working there for a long time by the end of this month .

He told me that he would have been living in Beijing for two years by the end of that month .

Lesson2 情态动词

情态动词用来表示说话人对一个动作或状态的看法、态度,即:说话人认为某事:“可能”“或许”或是“必须”发生等。情态动词是有词义的,借助情态动词,可以表示出说话人的“猜测,判断,允许,可以,指责,惊诧”等多种情感、态度。下面将听到十二种情态动词的用法。

1.can/could

Can you speak English ?

Could you show me the way to the National Stadium ?

2.may/might

You may stay with us for a whole day .

She might have known that news .

3.must/have to

Must I hand in the paper today ?

We missed the last bus , so we had to go home by taxi .

4.ought to

She ought to have come earlier .

You ought not to go out today .

5.shall/should

You shall stay where you are now .

You should try it again .

6.will/would

Will you come to help me ?

Would you kindly give me your telephone number ?

7.need

You don’t need to help us .

Need I go shopping with you ?

No ,you needn’t .

Lesson 3 被动语态

语态表示句子中主语和谓语动词的相互关系。当句子中的主语是谓语动词表示的动作的实施者时,就是主动语态,即:某人做某事。当句子的主语是谓语动词表示的动作的承受者时,就是被动语态,即:某人(或事物)被……。只有及物动词才能用于被动语态的句子中。有些时态很少使用被动语态或不使用被动语态。下面将会听到常用时态的被动语态,非谓语动词和情态动词的被动语态,以及被动语态的常用句型。

1.一般现在时的被动语态

This little boy is loved by all the people around .

He is always praised by the teacher .

2.一般过去时被动语态

Her mobile phone was stolen on the bus yesterday .

This area was destroyed by the earthquake two years ago .

3.一般过去将来时被动语态

He was sure that he would be invited to the party .

He told me that his paper would be finished soon .

4.一般将来时被动语态

This book will be finished in two weeks .\

Who will be invited to your wedding ceremony ?

5.现在进行时被动语态

She is being troubled by the final examination .

A new bridge is being built across this river .

6.过去进行时被动语态

The new airport was being built at this time .

My car was being repaired in the garage last week .

7.现在完成时被动语态

A new school has been set up in that remote area .

Tom has been dismissed .

8. 过去完成时被动语态

He said that his son had been sent to study abroad .

He said that the doctor had been sent for .

9.将来完成时被动语态

That factory will have been completed by the end of this year .

Two thousand cars will have been produced by the end of this month .

10.非谓语动词被动语态

Her dream is to be admitted to a university .

Your behavior is to be criticized .

11.情态动词被动语态

This must be done at once .

The patient should be sent to the hospital .

12.被动语态常用句型

It is said that he will come tomorrow .

It is well known that he is a famous singer .

Lesson 4 虚拟语气

英语有四种语气:陈述语气、疑问语气、祈使语气和虚拟语气。其中,陈述语气和疑问语气是我们平常最主要使用的两种语气。虚拟语气一般表示一种假设情况,即所说的事与事实相反,或只是主观愿望,有时表示说话人语气的客气、委婉。下面将听到7种虚拟语气句型。

1.与将来事实相反的虚拟语气(指将来发生的可能性很小的事)

If should have time , I would do it myself .

If I were to enter the university , I would major in psychology .

2.与现在事实相反的虚拟语气

If he had enough money , he would buy a notebook computer .

If I were you , I would accept that position .

3.与过去事实相反的虚拟语气

If you had arrived a little earlier ,you would have seen your icon .

If you hadn’t helped me . I wouldn’t have passed this examination .

4.错综时间条件句

If you had followed my advice , you would be a college student now .

If he had stopped smoking , he wouldn’t get lung cancer .

5.省略了if 的虚拟条件句

Were you Tom, what would you do at that time ?

Had you told me the flight number , I would have met you at the airport.

6.带有should 的虚拟语气(此句型中的should 可以省略)

It is necessary that you (should ) exercise every day .

It is important that we (should ) hand in the paper on time .

7.其他常用虚拟语气句型

It is time that we began to learn English .

But for your timely help ,I wouldn’t have overcome these difficulties .

 

 

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